This website is dedicated to the millions of thyroid patients who are being ignored and left to suffer unnecessarily, and to healthcare practitioners, who want to better serve those patients.

References: Endocrinology Failures

  1. Elizabeth Haggett. The Human Rights Act 1998 and Access to NHS Treatments and Services: A Practical Guide .Published by The Constitution Unit School of Public Policy UCL (University College London) 29/30 Tavistock Square,London WC1H 9QU. Web:
  2. Royal College of Physicians. Diagnosis and Management of Primary Hypothyroidism.
  3. Turner S. Thyroid Patient Advocacy. TPA rebuttal to RCP Policy Statement The Diagnosis and Management of Primary Hypothyroidism…Thyroid-Scandal
  4. Thyroid Patient Advocacy Rebuttal to BTA Statement on Armour Thyroid-v-T4 only Therapy
  5. Thyroid Patient Advocacy: Royal College of Physician’s Refusal to Listen: <>
  6. Henryk Zulewski, Beat Mller, Pascale Exer, Andr R.Miserez and Jean-Jacques Staub:Estimation of Tissue Hypothyroidism by a New Clinical Score: Evaluation of Patients with Various Grades of Hypothyroidism and Controls: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinolog
  7. Joao Pedro Werneck de Castro et al. Differences in hypothalamic type 2 deiodinase ubiquitination explain localized sensitivity to thyroxine. J ClinInvest. 2015. doi:10.1172/JCI77588. Published January 2, 2015
  8. The National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry.Standards of Laboratory Practice.Laboratory Support for the Diagnosis & Monitoring of Thyroid Disease. American Association of Clinical Chemistry; 1996:1-64
  9. Rouzier ,Neal. Rethinking the thyroid. World Link Medical. 2001;10:153-180.
  10. Goldberg M, The Case For Euthyroid Hypometabolism, Am JMed Sc October,1960 pgs 479-49
  11. Goldberg M, Diagnosis of Euthyroid Hypometabolism, Am JObst & Gynec, 81(5): 1053-1058, 196
  12. Baisier, W.V, Hertoghe, J., B, Eekhaut, W., Thyroid Insufficiency? Is Thyroxine the Only Valuable Drug?, Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 11, No. 3, September 2001, pages 159-16
  13. Braverman LE, Ingbar SH, Keinwem S, Conversion of Thyroxine (T4) to Triiodothyronine (T3) in Athyreotic Human Subjects, The J Clin Invest, 197
  14. Bruce H. Cohen, MD, Deborah R Gold, MD. What we know so far. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine Volume 68.No 7; July 200
  15. Dillman E, Gale C, Green W, et al. Hypothermia in iron deficiency due t oaltered triiodithyroidine metabolism. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 1980;239(5):377-R381
  16. Smith SM, Johnson PE, Lukaski HC. In vitro hepatic thyroid hormone deiodination in iron-deficient rats: effect of dietary fat. LifeSci 1993;53(8):603-9
  17. Zimmermann MB, Khrle J. The Impact of Iron and Selenium Deficiencies on Iodine and Thyroid Metabolism: Biochemistry and Relevance to Public Health.Thyroid 2002;12(10): 867-7
  18. Beard J, Tobin B, Green W. Evidence for Thyroid Hormone Deficiency in Iron-Deficient Anemic Rats. J. Nutr. 1989;119:772-778
  19. Jabbar A, Yawar A, Waseem S, Islam N, Ul Haque N, ZuberiL, Khan A,Akhter J. Vitamin B12 deficiency common in primary hypothyroidism. Departmentof Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. 2008 May;58(5):258-6
  20. Julia Brsony, P. Lakatos, J. Fldes and T. Fehr. Effectof vitamin D3 loading and thyroid hormone replacement therapy on the decreased serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level in patients with hypothyroidism: Acta Endocrinol. November 1, 1986 113 329-334
  21. B. CATARGI, F. PARROT-ROULAUD, C. COCHET, D. DUCASSOU, P.ROGER, and A.TABARIN. Thyroid. December 1999, 9(12): 1163-1166.doi:10.1089/thy.1999.9.1163.Published in Volume: 9 Issue 12: January 30, 2009
  22. Bjrn G. Nedreb, Ottar Nygrd, Per M. Ueland, and Ernst A.Lien; Plasma Total Homocysteine in Hyper- and Hypothyroid Patients before and during12 Months of Treatment. Clinical Chemistry September 2001 vol. 47 no.91738-174
  23. JOHN E. JONE St PAUL C. DESPER, STANLEY R. SHANE, ANDEDMUND B. FLINK. Magnesium Metabolism in Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism:Journal of Clinical Investigation. Vol. 45, No. 6, 196
  24. Lawrence Wilson, MD .COPPER TOXICITY SYNDROME Revised, July 2011, The Center For Development.…y_syndrome.htm
  25. Vivek R Joshi, Ayaz K Mallick, Manjunatha Goud B K, Ravindra Maradi,Maheshwar, G Reddy, Raghavendra Tey, Gaurav Shorey. Effect of serum copper concentration and ceruloplasmin on lipid parameters leading to increased propensity to cardiovascular risk. Department of Biochemistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University. ISSN: 0975-858
  26. Iham AmirAl-Juboori , Rafi Al-Rawi, Hussein Kadhem A-Hakeim. Estimation of Serum Copper ,Manganese, Selenium, and Zinc in Hypothyroidism Patients. IUFS Journal of Biology Short Communication 121 IUFS J Biol 2009, 68(2): 121-12
  27. Rajagopal KR, Abbrecht PH, Derderian SS, Pickett C, Hofeldt F, Tellis CJ, Zwillich CW. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypothyroidism (a report of three cases)]. Ann Intern Med. 1984 Oct;101(4):491-4.
  28. Rack SK, Makela EH. Hypothyroidism and depression: a therapeutic challenge Department of Behavioural Medicine and Psychiatry. AnnPharmacother 2000 Oct; 34(10):1142-
  29. Jonathan Stephen Murray, Rubaraj Jayarajasingh, Petros Perros. Deterioration of symptoms after start of thyroid hormone replacement BMJ.2001 August11; 323(7308):332-333
  30. Annane D, Sbille V, Charpentier C, Bollaert PE, Franois B, Korach JM, Capellier G, Cohen Y, Azoulay E, Troch G, Chaumet-Riffaud P, BellissantE. Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock. JAMA. 2002 Aug 21;288(7):862-71
  31. C.Orian Truss, M.D. Restoration of Immunologic Competence to Candida Albicans […9n04-p287.pdf]
  32. Diabetes Care January 2011 vol. 34 no. Supplement 1S11-S61
  33. McDermott JH, Coss A, Walsh CH. Celiac disease presenting as resistant hypothyroidism. Thyroid. 2005 Apr;15(4):386-8
  34. John Saunders. The practice of clinical medicine as an art and as a science. Med Humanities 2000;26:18-22 doi:10.1136/mh.26.1.1
  35. Wilson James L. Adrenal Fatigue, The 21st Century Stress Syndrome. Smart Publications. ISBN 1-890572-15-
  36. The Royal College of Physicians Clinical Guidelines:…cal/guidelines
  37. Joint Committee on Higher Medical Training, Higher Medical Training Curriculum for Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus,2003
  38. Robert H. Seller, MD and Andrew B. Symons, MD, MS Differential Diagnosis of Common Complaints, 6th Edition. ISBN: 9781455707720
  39. Differential Diagnosis (DDX) Definition: The distinguishing of a disease or condition from others presenting with similar signs and symptoms,Merriam-Webster
  40. Differential Diagnosis (DDX) is a systematic method used to identify unknowns. This method, essentially a process of elimination, is used by taxonomists to identify living organisms, and by physicians and other qualified professionals to diagnose the specific disease in a patient. Not all medical diagnoses are differential ones: some diagnoses merely name a set of signs and symptoms that may have more than one possible cause, and some diagnoses are based on intuition or estimations of likelihood. Wikipedia:
  41. Differential Diagnosis is a medical adaption of the process of elimination. These processes are based upon the logic of disjunctive syllogism,which is known from antiquity as modus tollendo poner
  42. Barnes.Temperature v Basal Metabolism. Journal Of American Medical Association. 119:1072,1942
  43. The SIGN Guide to the AGREE guideline appraisal instrument.
  44. Pritchard E K MSc. The Greater Thyroid System Table: Thyroid Patient Advocacy
  45. UKs Sunday Telegraph Could A Renegade Doctor Save Your Life?…your-life.html
  46. UK Daily Mail (26 Aug.2014): “Cold Hands? Always Tired? It Could Be The Hidden Thyroid Problem Many Doctors Refuse to Treat:…treat.htmlthis
  47. Lowe,John. Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapies: Ineffective and Harmful for Many Hypothyroid Patients. May 4, 2004
  48. Kirsch I, Deacon BJ, Huedo-Medina TB, Scoboria A, MooreTJ, et al. Initial Severity and Antidepressant Benefits: A Meta-Analysis of Data Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. 2008, PLoS Med 5(2):e45doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045: Access full article at
  49. Guardian: glaxosmithkline-pays-three-billion-dollars-to-settle-us-probe…&oe=ISO-8859-1
  50. 1.9bn fraud fine for Glaxo in US sparks calls for UK prosecution:…n-7906833.html
  51. Pritchard EK, The Linguistic Etiologies of Thyroxine-Resistant Hypothyroidism,Thyroid Science click on debate.
  52. Gossel, TA, Endocrinology Continuing Education accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), 200
  53. Baskin, HJ, MD, Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Evaluation and Treatment of Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism, AmAssoc Clin Endocrinol, 2002, Rev 200
  54. Levy EG, Ridgway EC, Wartofsky L,Algorithms for Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disorders, 2004
  55. Patients with Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism, and Guidelines for Detection of Thyroid Dysfunction.The American Thyroid Association provides links to several hypothyroidism related guidelines
  56. Vanderpump MPJ, Ahlquist JAO, Franklyn JA, et al., Consensus Statement for Good Practice and Audit Measures in the Management of Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism, BMJ, August 1996
  57. Garber JR, Hennessey JV ,Lieberman JA, Morris CM, Talbert RI, Managing the Challenges of Hypothyroidism, Supplement to J of Fam Pract,2006,
  58. A. Martin Gerdes. Restoration of thyroid hormone balance: A game changer in the treatment of heart failure? American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology.Nov 2014,DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00704.2
  59. Steven L. Richheimer, Charlotte B. Jensen. Response to Liothyronine and Levothyroxine in Armour Thyroid?: 1987.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Volume 76, Issue 4. Pages 346-347
  60. Rees-Jones RW, Larsen PR. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine content of desiccated thyroid tablets. Metabolism. 1977 Nov;26(11):1213-8
  61. Rees-Jones RW, Rolla AR, Larsen PR. Hormonal content of thyroid replacement preparations. JAMA. 1980 Feb 8;243(6):549-50
  62. Center for Occupational Research andDevelopment. CORDGeometry. Upper Saddle River, NJ.South-WesternEducational Publishing. 1999; 2-5
  63. Geisler NL, Brooks RM: Come, Let Us Reason: An Introduction to Logical Thinking. Grand Rapids, MI. Baker Book House. 1990
  64. Popper KR: Conjectures and Refutations. The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. New York, NY. Routledge Classics. 2003;43-51
  65. Turner S. Thyroid Patient Advocacy. Publication of Results of Hypothyroid Patients Survey.…Patient-Survey
  66. Thanh D. Hoang, Cara H. Olsen, Vinh Q. Mai, Patrick W.Clyde, and Mohamed K. M. Shakir: Desiccated Thyroid Extract Compared With Levothyroxine in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism: A Randomized, Double-Blind Crossover Study:
  67. M Abu-Helalah, M R Law, J P Bestwick, J P Monson, N J Wald. A randomized double-blind crossover trial to investigate the efficacy of screening for adult hypothyroidism. J Med Screen December 2010 vol. 17 no. 4164-169
  68. British Thyroid Association: UK Guidelines for the Use of Thyroid FunctionTests:http://www.british-thyroid-associati…_July_2006.pdf
  69. Nicoloff JT, Spencer CA. The use and misuse of the sensitive thyrotropin assay. J ClinEndocrinol Metab. 1990;71:553-
  70. DeLos Santos ET, Mazzaferri EL. Sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone assays: Clinical applications and limitations. Compr Ther. 1988; 14(9): 26-33.
  71. Becker DV, Bigos ST, Gaitan E, Morris J Crd, Rallison ML, Spencer CA, Sugarawa M, Van Middlesworth L, Wartofsky L. Optimal use of blood tests for assessment of thyroid function. JAMA 1993 Jun 2; 269: 273 (the decision to initiate therapy should be based on both clinical and laboratory findings and not solely on the results of a single laboratory test)
  72. Rippere V. Biochemical victims: False negative diagnosis through over reliance on laboratory resultsa personal report. MedHypotheses.1983; 10(2): 113
  73. Kirk E, Kvorning SA, Acta Med. Scandinav., Suppl. 184.pp3-83. 194
  74. Chester Ridgway The Colorado Thyroid Disease Prevalence Study. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:526-534
  75. Means JH: Lectures on the thyroid. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. 1954;48-49.
  76. Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services “Recalls and Field Corrections. Armour Thyroid” 11th May 2005.
  77. Hubbard WK. FDA notice regarding levothyroxine sodium .Federal Register. 1997;62(157): 1-1
  78. Peran S, Garriga MJ, Morreale de Escobar G, Asuncion M, Peran M. Increase in plasma thyrotropin levels in hypothyroid patients during treatment due to a defect in the commercial preparation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(10):3192-5
  79. Rita Chappelle. “FDA Acts to Ensure Thyroid Drugs Dont Lose Potency Before Expiration Date” October 2007.Food and Drugs Administration News.[
  80. Hays MT. Absorption of oral thyroxine in man. J ClinEndocrinol Metab. 1968; 28(6):749-56
  81. Surks MI, Schodlow AR, Stock Jm, Oppenheimer JH. Determination of iodothyronine absorption and conversion of L-thyroxine using turnover rate techniques. JClin Invest. 1973; 52:809-1
  82. Hertoghe T, Lo Cascio A., Hertoghe J. Considerable improvement of hypothyroid symptoms with two combined T3-T4 medication inpatients still symptomatic with thyroxine treatment alone. Anti-Aging Medicine (Ed. German Society of Anti-Aging Medicine-Verlag 2003)2004; 32-4
  83. Chopra IJ, Carlson HE, Solomon DH. Comparison of inhibitory effects of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), 3,3,’,5′-triiodothyronine (rT3), and 3,3′-diiodothyronine (T2) on thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced release of thyrotropin in the rat in vitro. Endocrinology. 1978Aug;103(2):393-402.
  84. Lewis M, Yeo PP, Green E, Evered DC. Inhibition of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone responsiveness by physiological concentrations of thyroid hormones in the cultured rat pituitary gland. J. Endocrinol. 1977Sep;74(3):405-14.
  85. Wenzel KW, Meinhold H, Schleusener H. T3 is more potent to inhibit TSH secretion than T4. Different effects of oral doses of triiodothyronine or thyroxine on the inhibition of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) mediated thyrotrophin (TSH) response in man. Acta Endocrinol.1975 Sep;80(1):42-8.
  86. Sawin CT, Hershman JM, Chopra IJ. The comparative effect of T4 and T3 on the TSH response to TRH in young adult men. J. Clin.Endocrinol. Metab.1977 Feb;44(2):273-8.
  87. aeda M, Kuzuya N, Masuyama Y, Imai Y, Ikeda H. Changes in serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyrotropin during treatment with thyroxine in severe primary hypothyroidism. 1976 Jul; J Clin Endocrinol Metab.43(1):10-7.
  88. Saravanan P, Simmons DJ, Greenwood R, Peters TJ, Dayan CM. Partial substitution of thyroxine (T4) with tri-iodothyronine in patients on T4 replacement therapy: results of a large community-based randomized controlledtrial. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Feb;90(2):805-12
  89. Kloppenburg M, Dijkmans BA, Rasker JJ. Effect of therapy for thyroid dysfunction on musculoskeletal symptoms. Clin Rheumatol. 1993Sep;12(3):341-5
  90. Pareira VG, Haron ES, Lima-Neto N, Medeiros-Neto GA.Management of myxedema coma: report on three successfully treated cases with nasogastric or intravenous administration of triiodothyronine. J EndocrinolInvest. 1982;5:331-4
  91. Chernow B, Burman KD, Johnson DL, McGuire RA, O’Brian JT, Wartofsky L, Georges LP. T3 may be a better agent than T4 in the critically ill hypothyroid patient: evaluation of transport across the blood-brain barrier in a primate model. Crit Care Med.1983 Feb;11(2):99-104
  92. Arlot S, Debussche X, Lalau JD, Mesmacque A, Tolani M, Quichaud J, Fournier A. Myxoedema coma: response of thyroid hormones with oral and intravenous high-dose L-thyroxine treatment. Intensive CareMed.1991;17(1):16-8
  93. Zondek H. Myxedema Heart. Munch Med Wochenschr. 1918, 65:1180-3
  94. Khaleeli AA, Memon N. Factors affecting resolution of pericardial effusions in primary hypothyroidism: a clinical, biochemical and echo cardiographic study. Postgrad Med J. 1982 Aug;58(682):473-6
  95. Benevicius R, Kazanavicius G, Zalinkovicius R, Prange AJ. Effects of thyroxine as compared with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine in patients with hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med.1999; 340: 424-9.
  96. Devlin WF, Watanabe H. Thyroxin-triiodothyronine concentrations in thryoid powders. J Pharm Sci. 1966
  97. Alley RA, Danowski TS, Robbins T JL, Weir TF, Sabeh G,and Moses CL.Indices during administration of T4 and T3 to euthyroid adults. Metabolism.1968;17(2):97-104 pr;55(4):390-3
  98. Escobar-Morreale HF, del Rey FE, Obregon MJ, de EscobarGM. Only the combined treatment with thyroxine and triiodothyronine ensures euthyroidism in all tissues of the thyroidectomized rat. Endocrinology.1996Jun;137(6):2490-502
  99. Escobar-Morreale HF, Obregon MJ, Escobar del Rey F, Morreale de Escobar G. Replacement therapy for hypothyroidism with thyroxine alone does not ensure euthyroidism in all tissues, as studied in thyroidectomized rats. J ClinInvest. 1995 Dec;96(6):2828-38
  100. AsperSP Jr, Selenkow HA, and Plamondon CA. A comparison of the metabolic activities of 3,5,3-triiodothyronine and l-thyroxine in myxedema. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp.1953; 93: 164
  101. Blackburn CM, McConahey WM ,Keating FR Jr, Albert A. Calorigenic effects of single intravenous doses of l-triiodothyronine and l-thyroxine in myxedematous persons. J Clin Invest.1954 Jun;33(6):819-2
  102. Burroughs V, Shenkman L.Thyroid function in the elderly. Am J Med Sci. 1982, 283 (1):8-17
  103. Celi FS, Zemskova M, Linderman JD, et al.,The pharmacodynamic equivalence of levothyroxine and liothyronine. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study in thyroidectomized patients., ClinEndocrinol, 2010 May; 72(5) 709-715, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03700.x.
  104. Carter JN, Eastman CJ, Corcoran JM, and Lazarus L. Inhibition of conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine in patients with severe chronic illness. ClinEndocrinol.1976; 5: 587-94
  105. Tulp O Land McKee TD Sr.Triiodothyronine neogenesis in lean and obese LA/N-cp rats.Biochem Biophys Res Communications. 1986; 140 (1): 134-42
  106. Katzeff HI, Selgrad C. Impaired peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism in genetic obesity. Endocrinology. 1993; 132 (3):989-95
  107. Croxson MS and Ibbertson HK.Low serum triiodothyronine (T3) and hypothyroidism inanorexia nervos. J ClinEndocrinol Metab. 1977; 44: 167-73
  108. Harns ARC, Fang SH, Vagenakis AG, and Braverman LE. Effect of starvation, nutriment replacement, and hypothyroidism on in vitro hepatic T4 to T3 conversion in the rat. Metabolism.1978;27(11):1680-90
  109. Opstad PK, Falch D, ktedalen O, Fonnum F, and Wergeland R. The thyroid function in young men during prolonged physical exercise and the effect of energy and sleep deprivation.Clin Endocrinol. 1984; 20: 657-69
  110. Feyes D, Hennemann G and Visser TJ. Inhibition of iodothyronine deiodinase by phenolphtalein dyes FedEur Biomed Sci. 1982; 137(1):40-4
  111. Bahn AK, Mills JL, Snyder PJ, Gann PH, Houten L, Bialik O, Hollmann L, and Utiger RD.Hypothyroidism in workers exposed to polybrominated biphenyls N Engl J Med.1980; 302: 31-3
  112. IkedaT, Ito Y, Murakami I, Mokuda O, Tominaga M and Mashiba H. Conversion of T4 to T3 in perfused liver of rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.Acta Endocrinol.1986;112: 89-92
  113. Paier B, Hagmller K, Nolli Mi, Gonzalez Pondal M, Stiegler C and Zaninovich AA.Changes induced by cadmium administration on thyroxine deiodination and sulfhydryl groups in rat liver J Endocrinol.1993; 138: 219-24
  114. Barregrd L, Lindstedt G, Schtz A, SllstenG. Endocrine function in mercury exposed chloralkali workers. Occup EnvirMed.1994; 51: 536-40
  115. Burger AG, Lambert M, Cullen M. Interfrence de substances mdicamenteuses dans laconversion deT4 en T3 et rT3 chez lhomme. Ann Endocrinol (Paris).1981,42:461-9
  116. Grussendorf M, Hfner M. Induction of the thyroxine to triiodothyronine converting enzyme in rat liver by thyroid hormones and analogs. Clin Chim Acta. 1977;80:61-6
  117. Erickson VJ, Cavalieri RR, Rosenberg LL.Thyroxine-5-diodinase of rat thyroid, but not that of liver, is dependent on thyrotropin. Endocrinology. 1982;111:434-40
  118. RezvaniI, DiGeorge AM, Dowshen SA, Bourdony CJ. Action of human growth hormone on extrathyroidal conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine in children wit hhypopituitarism. Pediatr Res.1981;15:6-9
  119. Schrder-Vander Elst JP, Van der Heide D. Effects of streptozocin-induced diabetes and food restriction on quantities and source of T4 and T3 in rat tissues. Diabetes.1992;41:147-52
  120. Gavin LA, Mahon FA, Moeller M. The mechanism of impaired T3 production from T4 indiabetes. Diabetes.1981;30:694-9
  121. Hoover PA, Vaughan MK, Little JC, Reiter RJ. N-methyl-D-aspartate does not prevent effects of melatonin on the reproductive and thyroid axes of male Syrian hamsters. J Endocrinology.1992;133:51-8
  122. Chanoine J-P, Safran M, Farwell AP, Tranter P, Ekenbarger DM, Dubord S, Alex S, Arthur JR, Beckett GJ, Braverman LE, Leonard JL. Selenium deficiency and type II5-deiodinase regulation in the euthyroid and hypothyroid rat: evidence of a direct effect of thyroxine. Endocrinology. 1992;130:479-84
  123. Arthur JR, Nicol F, Beckett GJ. Selenium deficiency, thyroid hormone metabolism, and thyroid hormone deiodinases. Am J Clin Nutr Suppl. 1993; 57:236S-9S
  124. Fujimoto S, Indo Y, Higashi A, MatsudaI, Kashiwabara N, and Nakashima I. Conversion of thyroxine into triiodothyronine in zinc deficient rat liver. J PediatrGastroenterol Nutr.1986;5:799-805
  125. Olin KI, Walter RM, and Keen CL. Copper deficiency affects selenoglutathione peroxidase and selenodeiodinase activities and antioxidant defense in weaning rats. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:654-8
  126. Westgren U, Ahren B, Burger A, Ingemansson S, Melander A. Effects of dexamethasone, desoxycorticosterone, and ACTH on serum concentrations of thyroxine,3,5,3-triiodothyronine and 3, 3,5-triiodothyronine. Acta Med Scand.1977;202 (1-2): 89-92
  127. Heyma P, Larkins RG. Glucocorticoids decrease the conversion of thyroxine into 3, 5,3-triiodothyronine by isolated rat renal tubules. Clin Science. 1982; 62:215-20
  128. Scammell JG, Shiverick KT, Fregly MJ. Effect of chronic treatment with estrogen and thyroxine, alone and combined, on the rate of deiodination of l-thyroxine to 3,5,3-triiodothyronine in vitro. Pharmacology. 1986;33: 52-7
  129. Grozinsky-Glasberg S, Fraser A, Nahshoni E, et al: Thyroxine-triiodothyronine combination therapy versus thyroxine monotherapy for clinical hypothyroidism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin EndocrinMetab, 2006; 91:2592-2599
  130. Pritchard EK. Reducing the Scope of Guidelines and Policy Statements in Hypothyroidism,Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Volume 28, Number 2, 2013. Also at Reducing-the-Scope-of-Guidelines-and-Policy-Statements-for-Hypothyroidism-28.2.pdf
  131. Astwood EB et al. Goodman and Gilman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, fourth.ed. New York: The Macmillan Company; 1970.
  132. Sawin CT, Hershman JM, Chopra IJ. The comparative effect of T4 and T3 on the TSH response to TRH in young adult men .J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1977Feb;44(2):273-8.
  133. Maeda M, Kuzuya N, Masuyama Y, Imai Y, Ikeda H. Changes in serum tri-iodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyrotropin during treatment with thyroxine in severe primary hypothyroidism. 1976 Jul; J ClinEndocrinol Metab. 43(1):10-7.
  134. Pareir aVG, Haron ES, Lima-Neto N, Medeiros-Neto GA. Management of myxedema coma :report on three successfully treated cases with nasogastric or intravenous administration of triiodothyronine. J Endocrinol Invest. 1982;5:331-4
  135. Alan R.Gaby,MD Alternative Medicine Review Volume 9, Number 2, 2004
  136. Joao Pedro Werneck de Castro … BalazsGereben, Antonio C. Bianco. Differences in hypothalamic type 2 deiodinaseubiquitination explain localized sensitivity to thyroxine. Published January 2,2015 JClin Invest. 2015.doi:10.1172/JCI77588.
  137. Gail Valentine. The Advantages of whole thyroid; Slowing Age-related Decline, LifeEnhancement.
  138. Mary Shomon: “Armour Thyroid and Thyrolar; Alternatives to Synthroid and the Other T4-Only Drugs. December 26th.2003.
  139. Shames, RL, Shames, KH, Thyroid Power:10 Steps to Total Health, Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 2001
  140. Arem,R., The Thyroid Solution, Ballantine Books, 1999, New York.
  141. Abraham GE. The safe and effective implementation of orthoiodo supplementation in medical practice. The Original Internist, 2004; 11(1):17-36.
  142. Saravanan,P., et al, Clinical Endocrinology 57 (5), 577-585, 2002.
  143. Rothfeld, G.S., Romaine, D.S., Thyroid Balance: Traditional and Alternative Methods for Treating Thyroid Disorders, Adams Media Corporation, Avon, Massachusetts, USA,2003.
  144. Barnes BO. Is there a third hormone in the thyroid gland? Which preparation should b eused for treatment? J Int AcadPrev Med 1982; November:38-39.
  145. Pepper GM, Casanova-Romero PY (2014) Conversion to Armour Thyroid from Levothyroxine Improved Patient Satisfaction in the Treatment of Hypothyroidism. J Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2(3): 1055
  146. Krenning, E.P., Docter, R., Visser, T.J., et al.: Replacement therapy with L-thyroxine: serum thyroid hormone and thyrotropin levels in hypothyroid patients changing from desiccated thyroid to pure thyroxine substitution therapy. Neth. J. Med.,28(1):1-5, 198
  147. Singh,S.P., Feldman, E.B., and Carter, A.C.: Desiccated thyroid and levothyroxine in hypothyroidism: comparison in replacement therapy. N.Y.State J. Med.,72(9):1045-1048, 1972.
  148. Sawin, C.T, Hershman, J.M., Fernandez-Garcia, R., et al.: A comparison of thyroxine and desiccated thyroid in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Metabolism,27(10):1518-1525,1978.
  149. LeBoff,M.S., Kaplan, M.M., Silva, J.E., et al.: Bioavailability of thyroid hormones from oral replacement preparations. Metabolism,31(9):900-905, 198
  150. Lavietes ,P.H.. and Epstein, F.H.: Thyroid therapy of myxedema: A comparison of various agents with a note on the composition of thyroid secretion in man. Ann. Intern.Med., 60:79-87, 1964
  151. Gorowski,T., Pucilowska, J., and Wernic, K.: Comparative effects of desiccated thyroid gland and sodium salt of L-thyroxine in the treatment of hypothyroidism. Pol.Tyg. Lek., 44(32-33):768-770, 1989.
  152. Felt,V. and Nedvidkova, J.: Comparison of treatment with L-thyroxine and a dried thyroid gland preparation in patients with hypothyroidism. Vnitr.Lek., 28(11):1067-1073, 1982
  153. Wartofsky,L.: Combined levo triiodothyronine and levo thyroxine therapy for hypothyroidism: are we a step closer to the magic formula? Thyroid,14(4):247- 248, 2004
  154. Kosowicz, J., Horst-Sikorska, W., Lacka, K., et al.: Outcome of treating hypothyroidism with thyreoideum. Pol. Tyg. Lek, 48(27-28):599-602, 1993
  155. Warszawie,C.M.K.P.: Treatment of hypothyroidism with L-thyroxine. Pol.Tyg. Lek,48(27-28):605-608, 1993
  156. McGavack, T.H. and Reckendorf, H.K.: Therapeutic activity of desiccated thyroid substance, sodium L-thyroxine and D, L-triiodothyronine: a comparative study. Am. J. Med.,20:774-777, 1956
  157. Gautam Das, Shweta Anand & Parijat De. Does synthetic thyroid extract work for everybody? Endocrine Abstracts (2007) P316
  158. Alan R.Gaby, MD. Sub-laboratory Hypothyroidism and the Empirical use of Armour Thyroid. (Altern Med Rev 2004;9(2):157-179)
  159. Lowe,J.C.: Natural desiccated thyroid: Guttlers false claim about It. ThyroidScience4(9):C1-6, 2009
  160. Novak Edmund A. M.D.; Holthaus, Joseph M. M.D.; Ogborn, Richard O. M.D: Clinical Study of Levo-Thyroxine and Aged Desiccated Thyroid in Euthyroid Subjects: American Journal of the Medical Sciences: March 1964
  161. Thompson, W.O., McLellan, L.L., Thompson, P.K., et al.: The rates of utilization of thyroxine and of desiccated thyroid in man: the relation between the iodine in desiccated thyroid and thyroxine. Arch. Intern. Med., 1932.
  162. Boothby, W. M., Sandiford, I., Sandiford, K., et al.: Abstract of Communication to the XIIth International Physiol. Congress held at Stockholm, Aug. 3-6, 1926. Skandinav.Archiv. 1926, xlix,
  163. Thompson,W.O., Nadler, S.B., Taylor, S. G., III, and Thompson, P. K.: The calorigenicaction of various thyroid derivatives. J. Clin. Invest. (Proc.),13:690,1934.
  164. Foster, G. L., Palmer, W. W., and Leland, J. P.: A comparison of the calorigenic potencies of l-thyroxine, dl-thyroxine, and thyroid gland, with a note on the thyroxine content of the acid-soluble fraction of the peptic digest of thyroid protein. J. Biol. Chem., 115:467, 193
  165. Thompson, W. O., Thompson, P. K., Brailey, A. G., et al.: The calorigenetic action of thyroxin at different levels of basal metabolism in myxedema. J. Clin. Invest.,7(3): 437463, 1929
  166. Sturnick, M.I. and Falcon-Lesses, M.: A comparison of the effect of desiccated thyroid and sodium levothyroxine on the serum protein-bound iodine. NewEngl. J. Med.,264:609, 196
  167. Sisson,J.C.: Principles of, and pitfalls in, thyroid function tests. J.Nuclear Med.,6:853-901, 1965.
  168. Robertson,J.D. and Kirkpatrick, H.F.W.: Changes in basal metabolism, serum protein-bound iodine and cholesterol during treatment of hypothyroidism with oral thyroid and l-thyroxine sodium. Brit. Med. J., March 22,1:624, 1952
  169. Gilman, A.G. and Murad, F.: Thyroid and antithyroid drugs. In The Pharmacologic Basisof Therapeutics, (ed 5). Edited by L.S. Goodman and Gilman, New York ,MacMilIan, 1975, p.1398.
  170. Means, J.H., DeGroot, L.J., and Stanbury, J.B.: The Thyroid and Its Diseases,3rd edition. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1963, p. 334.
  171. Werner,S.C.: Treatment of hypothyroidism. In The Thyroid, 3rd Edition. Edited by S.C. Werner and S.H. Ingbar, New York, Harper and Row, 1971,p.834
  172. Daughaday,W.H.: The adenohypophysis. In Textbook of Endocrinology,5th Edition. Edited by R.H. Williams, Philadelphia, Saunders, 1974, p.6
  173. Lowe, J.C.: Stability, effectiveness, and safety of desiccated thyroid vs levothyroxine: rebuttal to the British Thyroid Association. ThyroidScience ,4(3):C-1-12, 2009.
  174. Frederick L. Benoit Lieutenant Commander, MC, MC, USN: Treatment of Riedel’s Thyroiditis With Desiccated Thyroid. Endocrine Clinic and Medical Service, U.S. Naval Hospital, Oakland..Submitted July 14, 1964.
  175. Beverley Strisower, A.B., John W Gofman, MD., Elmer Galioni, MD. ,Joshua H Rubinger ,M.D.,Georgfe W OBrien M.D. and Alexander Simon, M.D. Effect of Long-Term Administration of Desiccated Thyroid on Serum Lipoprotein and Cholestero lLevels.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism January 1,1955 vol. 15 no. 1 73-80
  176. George S. Serif and Alan K Brevik.: ” Effects of Butyl-4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodobenzoate on the Conversion of p-carotene to Vitamin A in the Rat.” The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Vol. 235, No. 8, August196
  177. McGavack,T. R. and Reckendorf, H. K.: Therapeutic activity of desiccated thyroid substance, sodium I-thyroxine and d,1 triiodothyronine: A comparative study. Amer.J. Med., 20: 774, 1956..
  178. Haynes,R.C., Jr.: Thyroid and antithyroid drugs. In Goodman and Gilmans The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th edition. New York,Pergamo
  179. Matthews,G. “Armour Thyroid and Porcine Thyroid Extract Replacement Therapy”. .June 29.2004.Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency MHRA letter.
  180. IDIS Ltd. Sourcing Unlicensed Named Patients Medicines.…ID=@0000000001
  181. Krantz JC Jr., New Drugs and the Kefauver-Harris Amendment, J New Drugs, 1966, Mar-Apr;6(22):77-9
  182. Krantz JC Jr., The Kefauver-Harris amendment after sixteen years, Mil Med. 1978Dec;143(12):883.
  183. International Academy of Hypothyroidism – Why doesn’t my Endocrinologists Know all of This?


You must be logged in to post a comment.

Previous comments