This website is dedicated to the millions of thyroid patients who are being ignored and left to suffer unnecessarily, and to healthcare practitioners, who want to better serve those patients.

References to RCP/GMC Rebuttals: 14 December 2014

REFERENCES to RCP/ GMC Rebuttals: 14 December 2014
1.RoyalCollege of Physicians. Diagnosis and Management of Primary Hypothyroidism.https://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/sites/default/files/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-primary-hypothyrodism-statement-19-november-2008.pdf
2.The British Thyroid Association Executive Committee Armour Thyroid (USP)and combined thyroxine/ triiodothyronine as thyroid hormone replacement: astatement from February 2007. http://www.britishthyroidassociation.org/
3.Toft A, Beckett G,BMJ 2003 (8 Feb); 326:295-296
4.Royal College of Physicians Remit: http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/what-we-do
5.British Thyroid Association:Warning:http://www.british-thyroid-association.org/Good Medical Practice:Teaching and training, appraising and assessing. http://www.gmc-uk.org/guidance/good_…g_training.asp
6.GMC Speciality Training Curriculum For Endocrinology andDiabetes Mellitus August 2010 (Amendments August 2012) Joint Royal Colleges ofPhysicians Training Board http://www.gmc-uk.org/Endocrinology_Diabetes_Curriculum_AMENDMENTS_AUG_2012_081012_V0.pdf_50330155.pdf
7.Goldberg M, The Case For Euthyroid Hypometabolism, Am J Med Sc October,1960 pgs 479-493
8.Goldberg M, Diagnosis of Euthyroid Hypometabolism, Am J Obst &Gynec, 81(5): 1053-1058, 1961
9.Joint Committee on Higher Medical Training, HigherMedical Training Curriculum for Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, 2003
10.Good Medical Practice: Teaching and training, appraisingand assessing. http://www.gmc-uk.org/guidance/good_…g_training.asp
11.ChrisKresser:Low T3 Syndrome IV: An Autoimmune Disease Youve Never HeardOf?http://chriskresser.com/low-t3-syndrome-iv-an-autoimmune-disease-youve-never-heard-of- comments
12.TurnerS. Thyroid Patient Advocacy. TPA rebuttal to RCP Policy Statement TheDiagnosis and management of Primary Hypothyroidism.http://tpauk.com/forum/content.php?1068-The-Royal-College-of-Physicians-Great-Thyroid-Scandal
13.Thyroid PatientAdvocacy:Rebuttal to NHS UKMi Q&A 56.5 (November 2011) .http://tpauk.com/forum/content.php?1407-NHS-UKMi-Q-A-56-5-(November-2011)-TPA-REBUTTAL
14.NicoloffJT, Spencer CA. The use and misuse of the sensitive thyrotropin assay. J ClinEndocrinol Metab. 1990;71:553-8
15.DeLos Santos ET, Mazzaferri EL. Sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone assays:Clinical applications and limitations. Compr Ther. 1988; 14(9): 26-33.
16.BeckerDV, Bigos ST, Gaitan E, Morris JCrd, rallison ML, Spencer CA, Sugarawa M, VanMiddlesworth L, Wartofsky L. Optimal use of blood tests for assessment ofthyroid function. JAMA 1993 Jun 2; 269: 273 (the decision to initiate therapyshould be based on both clinical and laboratory findings and not solely on theresults of a single laboratory test)
17.Rippere V. Biochemical victims: Falsenegative diagnosis through overreliance on laboratory resultsa personalreport. Med Hypotheses. 1983; 10(2): 113
18.MAbu-Helalah, M R Law, J P Bestwick, J P Monson, N J Wald. A randomizeddouble-blind crossover trial to investigate the efficacy of screening for adulthypothyroidism. J Med Screen December 2010 vol. 17 no. 4 164-169
19.BritishThyroid Association: UK Guidelines for the Use of Thyroid Function Tests:http://www.british-thyroid-association.org/info-for-patients/Docs/TFT_guideline_final_version_July_2006.pdf
20.Henryk Zulewski, Beat Mller, Pascale Exer, Andr R.Miserez and Jean-Jacques Staub:Estimation of Tissue Hypothyroidism by a NewClinical Score: Evaluation of Patients with Various Grades of Hypothyroidismand Controls: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology
21.Wilmar M. Wiersinga, M.D. Department of Endocrinology F5-171 AcademicMedical Center Meibergdreef 9 NL-1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands Tel:011-31-20-566-6071 Fax: 011-31-20-566-4440
22.The SIGN Guide to the AGREE guideline appraisalinstrument. http://www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/agreeguide/index.html.
23.Pritchard EK, The Linguistic Etiologies ofThyroxine-Resistant Hypothyroidism, Thyroid Science www.thyroidscience.com click on debate.
24.Gossel, TA, Endocrinology Continuing Education accredited by the AccreditationCouncil for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), 2005
25.Baskin, HJ, MD, MedicalGuidelines for Clinical Practice for the Evaluation and Treatment of Hyperthyroidismand Hypothyroidism, Am Assoc Clin Endocrinol, 2002, Rev 2006
26.Levy EG, Ridgway EC, Wartofsky L,Algorithms for Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disorders, www.thyroidtoday.com 2004.
27.Patients with Hyperthyroidism andHypothyroidism, and Guidelines for Detection of Thyroid Dysfunction.TheAmerican Thyroid Association provides links to several hypothyroidism relatedguidelines www.thyroid.org
28.Vanderpump MPJ, Ahlquist JAO,Franklyn JA, et al., Consensus Statement for Good Practice and Audit Measuresin the Management of Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism, BMJ, August 1996
29.Garber JR, Hennessey JV,Lieberman JA, Morris CM, Talbert RI, Managing the Challenges of Hypothyroidism,Supplement to J of Fam Pract, 2006,
30.Kaplan MM, Clinical Perspectivesin the Diagnosis of Thyroid Disease, Clin Chem, 1999, 45:8(B) 1377-1383
31.Turner S. ThyroidPatient Advocacy. Register of Counterexamples to T4-monotherapy http://tpauk.com/forum/content.php?608-WORLD-REGISTER-OF-COUNTEREXAMPLES-and-TRIPLE-COUNTEREXAMPLES-TO-T4-ONLY-THERAPY
32.Dr. E. Chester Ridgway, Director of Endocrinologyat the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Equivalence ofLevothyroxine Sodium Products, Joint Public Meeting (Cosponsored with theAmerican Thyroid Association, The Endocrine Society, and the AmericanAssociation of Clinical Endocrinologists) Monday, May 23, 2005, pages 144-145
33.Pritchard E K MSc. The Greater Thyroid System Table:Thyroid Patient Advocacy http://tpauk.com/forum/content.php?675-GTS-Table
34.Kirk E, Kvorning SA, Acta Med. Scandinav., Suppl. 184. pp3-83. 1947
35.MeansJH: Lectures on the thyroid. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. 1954;48-49.
36.Baisier, WV, Hertoghe, J., Beekhaut, W., Thyroid Insufficiency? Is Thyroxine the OnlyValuable Drug?, Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, Vol11, No. 3, September 2001, pages 159-166
37.StevenL. Richheimer, Charlotte B. Jensen. Response to Liothyronine and Levothyroxinein Armour Thyroid?: 1987.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Volume 76, Issue4. Pages 346-347
38.Rees-JonesRW, Larsen PR. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine content of desiccated thyroidtablets. Metabolism. 1977 Nov;26(11):1213-8
39.Rees-JonesRW, Rolla AR, Larsen PR. Hormonal content of thyroid replacementpreparations. JAMA. 1980 Feb 8;243(6):549-50.
40.TurnerS. Thyroid Patient Advocacy. Publication of Hypothyroid Patients Survey. http://tpauk.com/forum/content.php?414-Publication-of-TPA-Hypothyroid-Patient-Survey
41.Foodand Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services “Recallsand Field Corrections. Armour Thyroid” 11th May 2005. www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2005/ENF00899.html
42.HubbardWK. FDA notice regarding levothyroxine sodium. Federal Register. 1997;62(157): 1-1
43.PeranS, Garriga MJ, Morreale de Escobar G, Asuncion M, Peran M. Increase in plasmathyrotropin levels in hypothyroid patients during treatment due to a defect inthe commercial preparation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82(10):3192-5
44.RitaChappelle. “FDA Acts to Ensure Thyroid Drugs Dont Lose Potency BeforeExpiration Date” October 2007.Food and Drugs AdministrationNews.http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2007/NEW01717.html
45.[www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/enforce/2005/ENF00899.html
46.HaysMT. Absorption of oral thyroxine in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1968; 28(6):749-56
47.SurksMI, Schodlow AR, Stock Jm, Oppenheimer JH. Determination of iodothyronineabsorption and conversion of L-thyroxine using turnover rate techniques. JClin Invest. 1973; 52:809-11
48.FeyesD, Hennemann G and Visser TJ. Inhibition of iodothyronine deiodinase byphenolphtalein dyes Fed Eur Biomed Sci. 1982; 137(1):40-4
49.BahnAK, Mills JL, Snyder PJ, Gann PH, Houten L, Bialik O, Hollmann L, and UtigerRD. Hypothyroidism in workers exposed to polybrominated biphenyls N Engl JMed. 1980; 302: 31-3
50.IkedaT, Ito Y, Murakami I, Mokuda O, Tominaga M and Mashiba H. Conversion of T4 toT3 in perfused liver of rats with carbontetrachloride-induced liver injury.Acta Endocrinol. 1986;112: 89-92
51.PaierB, Hagmller K, Nolli Mi, Gonzalez Pondal M, Stiegler C and Zaninovich AA.Changes induced by cadmium administration on thyroxine deiodination andsulfhydryl groups in rat liver J Endocrinol. 1993; 138: 219-24
52.BarregrdL, Lindstedt G, Schtz A, Sllsten G. Endocrine function in mercury exposedchloralkali workers. Occup Envir Med. 1994; 51: 536-40
53.BurgerAG, Lambert M, Cullen M. Interfrence de substances mdicamenteuses dans laconversion de T4 en T3 et rT3 chez lhomme. Ann Endocrinol (Paris).1981,42:461-9
54.GrussendorfM, Hfner M. Induction of the thyroxine to triiodothyronine converting enzymein rat liver by thyroid hormones and analogs. Clin Chim Acta. 1977;80:61-6
55.Erickson VJ, Cavalieri RR, Rosenberg LL.Thyroxine-5-diodinase of rat thyroid, but not that of liver, is dependent onthyrotropin. Endocrinology. 1982;111:434-40
56.Rezvani I, DiGeorge AM, Dowshen SA, BourdonyCJ. Action of human growth hormone on extrathyroidal conversion of thyroxineto triiodothyronine in children with hypopituitarism. Pediatr Res. 1981;15:6-9
57.Schrder-Vander Elst JP, Van der Heide D. Effects of streptozocin-induced diabetes andfood restriction on quantities and source of T4 and T3 in rat tissues.Diabetes. 1992;41:147-52
58.Gavin LA, Mahon FA, Moeller M. The mechanismof impaired T3 production from T4 in diabetes. Diabetes. 1981;30:694-9
59.HooverPA, Vaughan MK, Little JC, Reiter RJ. N-methyl-D-aspartate does not preventeffects of melatonin on the reproductive and thyroid axes of male Syrianhamsters. J Endocrinology. 1992;133:51-8
60.ChanoineJ-P, Safran M, Farwell AP, Tranter P, Ekenbarger DM, Dubord S, Alex s, ArthurJR, Beckett GJ, Braverman LE, Leonard JL. Selenium deficiency and type II5-deiodinase regulation in the euthyroid and hypothyroid rat: evidence of adirect effect of thyroxine. Endocrinology. 1992;130:479-84
61.ArthurJR, Nicol F, Beckett GJ. Selenium deficiency, thyroid hormone metabolism, andthyroid hormone deiodinases. Am J Clin Nutr Suppl. 1993; 57:236S-9S
62.BeardJ, Tobin B, and Green W. Evidence for thyroid hormone deficiency iniron-deficient anemic rats. J Nutr. 1989;772-8
63.Fujimoto S, Indo Y, Higashi A, Matsuda I,Kashiwabara N, and Nakashima I. Conversion of thyroxine into triiodothyroninein zinc deficient rat liver. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1986;5:799-805
64.Olin KI, Walter RM, and Keen CL. Copper deficiencyaffects selenoglutathione peroxidase and selenodeiodinase activities andantioxidant defense in weanling rats. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:654-8
65.Westgren U, Ahren B, Burger A, Ingemansson S,Melander A. Effects of dexamethasone, desoxycorticosterone, and ACTH on serumconcentrations ot thyroxine, 3,5,3-triiodothyronine and 3, 3,5-triiodothyronine. Acta Med Scand. 1977;202 (1-2): 89-92
66.HeymaP, Larkins RG. Glucocorticoids decrease the conversion of thyroxine into 3, 5,3-triiodothyronine by isolated rat renal tubules. Clin Science. 1982; 62:215-20
67.ScammellJG, Shiverick KT, Fregly MJ. Effect of chronic treatment with estrogen andthyroxine, alone and combined, on the rate of deiodination of l-thyroxine to 3,5, 3-triiodothyronine in vitro. Pharmacology. 1986;33: 52-7
68.AizawaT, Yamada T. Effects of thyroid hormones, antithyroid drugs and iodide on invitro conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol.1981; 8: 215-25
69.VossC, Schrober HC, Hartmann N. Einfluss von Lithium auf die in vitro-Deioderungvon l-Thyroxin in der Ratten leber. Acta Biol Med Germ. 1977; 36:1061-5
70.BeneviciusR, Kazanavicius G, Zalinkovicius R, Prange AJ. Effects of thyroxine ascompared with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine in patients with hypothyroidism.N Engl J Med.1999; 340: 424-9.
71.DevlinWF, Watanabe H. Thyroxin-triiodothyronine concentrations in thryoid powders.J Pharm Sci. 1966 Apr;55(4):390-3
72.AlleyRA, Danowski TS, Robbins T JL, Weir TF, Sabeh G, and Moses CL. Indices duringadministration of T4 and T3 to euthyroid adults. Metabolism. 1968;17(2):97-104
73.Escobar-MorrealeHF, del Rey FE, Obregon MJ, de Escobar GM. Only the combined treatment withthyroxine and triiodothyronine ensures euthyroidism in all tissues of the thyroidectomizedrat. Endocrinology. 1996 Jun;137(6):2490-502
74.Escobar-MorrealeHF, Obregon MJ, Escobar del Rey F, Morreale de Escobar G. Replacement therapyfor hypothyroidism with thyroxine alone does not ensure euthyroidism in alltissues, as studied in thyroidectomized rats. J Clin Invest. 1995Dec;96(6):2828-38
75.AsperSP Jr, Selenkow HA, and Plamondon CA. A comparison of the metabolic activitiesof 3,5,3-triiodothyronine and l-thyroxine in myxedema. Bull Johns HopkinsHosp. 1953; 93: 164
76.BlackburnCM, McConahey WM, Keating FR Jr, Albert A. Calorigenic effects of singleintravenous doses of l-triiodothyronine and l-thyroxine in myxedematouspersons. J Clin Invest. 1954 Jun;33(6):819-2
77.Grozinsky-GlasbergS, Fraser A, Nahshoni E, et al: Thyroxine-triiodothyronine combination therapyversus thyroxine monotherapy for clinical hypothy*!”$%^&*roidism: meta-analysis ofrandomized controlled trials. J ClinEndocrin Metab, 2006; 91: 2592-2599
78.SaravananP, Simmons DJ, Greenwood R, Peters TJ, Dayan CM. Partial substitution ofthyroxine (T4) with tri-iodothyronine in patients on T4 replacement therapy:results of a large community-based randomized controlled trial. ClinEndocrinol Metab. 2005 Feb;90(2):805-12
79.GoldbergM: The case for euthyroid hypometabo*!”$%^&*lism. Am J Med Sci, 1960; 240: 479-493.
80.PritchardEK, Reducing the Scope of Guidelines and Policy Statements in Hypothyroidism,Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Volume 28, Number 2, 2013. also athttps://www.csom.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Reducing-the-Scope-of-Guidelines-and-Policy-Statements-for-Hypothyroidism-28.2.pdf
81.AstwoodEB et al. Goodman and Gilman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics,fourthed. New York: The MacmillanCompany; 1970.
82.ChopraIJ, Carlson HE, Solomon DH. Comparison of inhibitory effects of3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), 3,3,’,5′-triiodothyronine (rT3),and 3,3′-diiodothyronine (T2) on thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced releaseof thyrotropin in the rat in vitro. Endocrinology. 1978 Aug;103(2):393-402.
83.LewisM, Yeo PP, Green E, Evered DC. Inhibition of thyrotrophin-releasing hormoneresponsiveness by physiological concentrations of thyroid hormones in thecultured rat pituitary gland. J. Endocrinol. 1977 Sep;74(3):405-14.
84.WenzelKW, Meinhold H, Schleusener H. T3 is more potent to inhibit TSH secretion thanT4. Different effects of oral doses of triiodothyronine or thyroxine on theinhibition of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) mediated thyrotrophin (TSH)response in man. Acta Endocrinol. 1975 Sep;80(1):42-8.
85.SawinCT, Hershman JM, Chopra IJ. The comparative effect of T4 and T3 on the TSHresponse to TRH in young adult men. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1977Feb;44(2):273-8.
86.MaedaM, Kuzuya N, Masuyama Y, Imai Y, Ikeda H. Changes in serum triiodothyronine,thyroxine, and thyrotropin during treatment with thyroxine in severe primaryhypothyroidism. 1976 Jul; J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 43(1):10-7.
87.KloppenburgM, Dijkmans BA, Rasker JJ. Effect of therapy for thyroid dysfunction onmusculoskeletal symptoms. Clin Rheumatol. 1993 Sep;12(3):341-5
88.PareiraVG, Haron ES, Lima-Neto N, Medeiros-Neto GA. Management of myxedema coma:report on three successfully treated cases with nasogastric or intravenousadministration of triiodothyronine. J Endocrinol Invest. 1982;5:331-4
89.ChernowB, Burman KD, Johnson DL, McGuire RA, O’Brian JT, Wartofsky L, Georges LP. T3may be a better agent than T4 in the critically ill hypothyroid patient:evaluation of transport across the blood-brain barrier in a primate model.Crit Care Med. 1983 Feb;11(2):99-104
90.ArlotS, Debussche X, Lalau JD, Mesmacque A, Tolani M, Quichaud J, Fournier A.Myxoedema coma: response of thyroid hormones with oral and intravenoushigh-dose L-thyroxine treatment. Intensive Care Med. 1991;17(1):16-8
91.ZondekH. Myxedema Heart. Munch Med Wochenschr. 1918, 65: 1180-3
92.AbrahamGE. The safe and effective implementation of orthoiodosupplementation inmedical practice. The Original Internist, 2004; 11(1):17-36.
93.Saravanan,P., et al, Clinical Endocrinology 57 (5), 577-585, 2002.
94.Rothfeld,G.S., Romaine, D.S., Thyroid Balance: Traditional and Alternative Methods forTreating Thyroid Disorders,Adams Media Corporation, Avon, Massachusetts, USA,2003.
95.Lowe,John. Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapies: Ineffective and Harmful for ManyHypothyroid Patients. May 4, 2004http://www.drlowe.com/frf/t4replacement/intro.htm
96.LeBoffMS, Kaplan MM, Silva JE, Larsen PR. Bioavailability of thyroid hormones fromoral replacement preparations. Metabolism. 1982 Sep;31(9):900-5.
97.GabyAR.Sub-laboratory hypothyroidism and the empirical use of Armour thyroid.Altern Med Rev. 2004 Jun;9(2):157-79
98.HertogheT, Lo Cascio A., Hertoghe J. Considerable improvement of hypothyroid symptomswith two combined T3-T4 medication in patients still symptomatic with thyroxinetreatment alone. Anti-Aging Medicine (Ed. German Society of Anti-AgingMedicine-Verlag 2003) 2004; 32-43
99.ArmourThyroid (thyroid tablets USP). http://www.frx.com/pi/armourthyroid_pi.pdf
100.Gail Valentine. The Advantages ofwhole thyroid; Slowing Age-related Decline, Life Enhancement. http://www.life-
101.Mary Shomon: “Armour Thyroidand Thyrolar; Alternatives to Synthroid and the Other T4-Only Drugs. December26th. 2003. About.com/Thyroid.http://thyroid.about.com/library/weekly/aa111797.htm
102.Shames, RL, Shames, KH, ThyroidPower: 10 Steps to Total Health, Harper Collins Publishers, New York, 2001
103.Arem, R., The Thyroid Solution,Ballantine Books, 1999, New York.
104.Pearch, C.J. and Himsworth, R.L. Total and free thyroid hormoneconcentration in patients receiving maintenance
placement treatment with thyroxine.Brit. Med. J., 288: 693-695, 1984
105.Abraham GE. The safe and effectiveimplementation of orthoiodosupplementation in medical practice. The OriginalInternist, 2004; 11(1):17-36.
106.Sacket et al.Evidence-Based Medicine – How to Practiceand Teach EBM :p108http://journals.bmj.com/site/authors/editorial-policies.xhtml#misconduct
107.Barnes BO. Is there a thirdhormone in the thyroid gland? Which preparation should be used for treatment?J Int Acad Prev Med 1982; November:38-39.
108.HorstC, et al. “Rapid stimulation of hepatic oxygen consumption by3,5-di-iodo-L-thyronine.” Biochem J 1989 Aug 1;261(3):945-50
109.LanniA, et al. “Calorigenic effect of diiodothyronines in the rat.” JPhysiol 1996 Aug 1;494 (Pt 3):831-7
110.GogliaF, et al. “Action of thyroid hormones at the cellular level: themitochondrial target.” FEBS Lett 1999 Jun 11;452(3):115-20
111.LanniA, et al. “Effect of 3,3-diiodothyronine and 3,5-diiodothyronine on ratliver oxidative capacity.” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. Volume86, Issue 3. 1992
112.LanniA, et al. J. Endocrinol. 136:59-64 1993.
113. OReilly I, Murphy MP. Acta Endocrinol.127:542-546 1992.
114.LanniA, et al. “3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine and 3,5,3-triiodo-L-thyronine bothimprove the cold tolerance of hypothyroid rats, but possibly via differentmechanisms.” Pflugers Arch 1998 Aug;436(3):407-1
115.VargheseS, Oommen OV. “Thyroid hormones regulate lipid metabolism in a teleostAnabas testudineus (Bloch).” Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 1999Dec;124(4):445-50
116.J.Kvetny. Horm. Metab. Res. 24:322-325, 1992.
117.MorenoM, et al. “Effect of 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine on thyroid stimulating hormoneand growth hormone serum levels in hypothyroid rats.” Life Sciences,Volume 62, No.26, pp. 2369-2377, 1998.
118.HorstC, et al. “3,5-Di-iodo-L-thyronine suppresses TSH in rats in vivo and inrat pituitary fragments in vitro.” J Endocrinol 1995 May;145(2):291-7
119.BaurA, et al. “3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine stimulates type 1 5 deiodinase activityin rat anterior pituitaries in vivo and in reaggregate cultures and GH3 cellsin vitro.” Endocrinology 1997 Aug;138(8):3242-8.
120.Thanh D. Hoang, Cara H. Olsen, Vinh Q. Mai, Patrick W.Clyde, and Mohamed K. M. Shakir: Desiccated Thyroid Extract Compared With Levothyroxine inthe Treatment of Hypothyroidism: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Study: http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-4107
121.Pepper GM, Casanova-Romero PY (2014)Conversion to Armour Thyroid from Levothyroxine Improved Patient Satisfactionin the Treatment ofHypothyroidism. J Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2(3): 1055.
122.Krenning,E.P., Docter, R., Visser, T.J., et al.: Replacement therapy with L-thyroxine:serum thyroid hormone and thyrotropin levels in hypothyroid patients changingfrom desiccated thyroid to pure thyroxine substitution therapy. Neth. J. Med., 28(1):1-5, 1981.
123.Singh, S.P.,Feldman, E.B., and Carter, A.C.: Desiccated thyroid and levothyroxine inhypothyroidism: comparison in replacement therapy. N.Y. State J.Med.,72(9):1045-1048, 1972.
124.Sawin, C.T.,Hershman, J.M., Fernandez-Garcia, R., et al.: A comparison of thyroxine anddesiccated thyroid in patients with primary hypothyroidism. Metabolism, 27(10):1518-1525, 1978.
125.LeBoff,M.S., Kaplan, M.M., Silva, J.E., et al.: Bioavailability of thyroid hormonesfrom oral replacement preparations. Metabolism,31(9):900-905, 1982.
126.Lavietes,P.H.. and Epstein, F.H.: Thyroid therapy of myxedema: A comparison of variousagents with a note on the composition of thyroid secretion in man. Ann. Intern.Med., 60:79-87, 1964.
127.Gorowski,T., Pucilowska, J., and Wernic, K.: Comparative effects of desiccated thyroidgland and sodium salt of L-thyroxine in the treatment of hypothyroidism.Pol. Tyg. Lek., 44(32-33):768-770,1989.
128.Felt, V. andNedvidkova, J.: Comparison of treatment with L-thyroxine and a driedthyroidgland preparation in patients with hypothyroidism. Vnitr. Lek., 28 (11):1067-1073, 1982
129.Wartofsky,L.: Combined levotriiodothyronine and levothyroxine therapy for hypothyroidism:are we a step closer to the magic formula? Thyroid, 14(4):247- 248, 2004
130.Kosowicz,J., Horst-Sikorska, W., Lacka, K., et al.: Outcome of treating hypothyroidismwith thyreoideum. Pol. Tyg. Lek,48(27-28):599-602, 1993.
131.Warszawie,C.M.K.P.: Treatment of hypothyroidism with L-thyroxine. Pol. Tyg. Lek, 48(27-28):605-608, 1993.
132.McGavack,T.H. and Reckendorf, H.K.: Therapeutic activity of desiccated thyroidsubstance, sodium Lthyroxine and D, L-triiodothyronine: a comparative study. Am. J. Med., 20:774-777, 1956
133.Baisier,W.V., Hertoghe, J., and Eeckhaut, W.:Thyroidinsufficiency: is thyroxine theonly valuable Drug? J. Nutr. Environ.Med., 11:159-166, 2001.
134.Gautam Das,Shweta Anand & Parijat De. Does synthetic thyroid extract work foreverybody? Endocrine Abstracts(2007) P316
135.Alan R.Gaby, MD. Sub-laboratory Hypothyroidism and the Empirical use of ArmourThyroid. (Altern Med Rev 2004;9(2):157-179)
136.Lowe, J.C.:Natural desiccated thyroid: Guttlers false claim about It. Thyroid Science 4(9):C1-6, 2009
137.Lowe, J.C.:Stability, effectiveness, and safety of desiccated thyroid vs levothyroxine:rebuttal to the British Thyroid Association. Thyroid Science, 4(3):C-1-12, 2009.
138.Lowe, J.C.: Stability,effectiveness, and safety of desiccated thyroid vs levothyroxine: rebuttal tothe British Thyroid Association. ThyroidScience, 4(3):C-1-12, 2009.
139.Werner, S.C.: Treatment ofhypothyroidism. In The Thyroid,3rd edition. Edited by S.C. Werner and S.H. Ingbar, New York, Harper and Row,1971, p.834.
140.Gilman, A.G. and Murad, F.:Thyroid and antithyroid drugs. In ThePharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, (ed 5). Edited by L.S. Goodman anda. Gilman, New York, MacMilIan, 1975, p.1398
141.Sisson, J.C.: Principles of,and pitfalls in, thyroid function tests. J.Nuclear Med., 6:853-901, 1965.
142.Means, J.H., DeGroot, L.J.,and Stanbury, J.B.: The Thyroid andIts Diseases, 3rd edition. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1963, p. 334.
143.Frederick L. Benoit.ieutenantCommander, MC, MC, USN: Treatment of Riedel’s Thyroiditis With DesiccatedThyroid.Endocrine Clinic and Medical Service, U.S. NavalHospital,Oakland..Submitted July 14, 1964
144.Sturnick, M.I. andFalcon-Lesses, M.: A comparison of the effect of desiccated thyroid and sodiumlevothyroxine on the serum protein-bound iodine. NewEngl. J. Med.,264:609, 1961.
145.George S. Serif and Alan KBrevik.: ” Effects of Butyl-4-hydroxy-3,5-diiodobenzoate on the Conversionof p-carotene to Vitamin A in the Rat.” The Journal of BiologicalChemistry. Vol. 235, No. 8, August 1960
146.Beverley Strisower, A.B.,JohnW Gofman, MD., Elmer Galioni, MD.,Joshua H Rubinger, M.D.,Georgfe W OBrienM.D. and Alexander Simon, M.D. Effect of Long-Term Administration ofDesiccated Thyroid on Serum Lipoprotein and Cholesterol Levels.The Journal ofClinical Endocrinology & MetabolismJanuary 1, 1955 vol. 15 no. 1 73-80
147.Singh, S.P., Feldman, E.B.,and Carter, A.C.: Desiccated thyroid and levothyroxine in hypothyroidism:comparison in replacement therapy. N.Y.State J. Med., 72(9):1045-1048,1972.
148.Lavietes, P.H. and Epstein,F.H.: Thyroid therapy of myxedema: A comparison of various agents with a noteon the composition of thyroid secretion in man. Ann. Intern. Med., 60:79-87, 1964.
149.McGavack, T. R. andReckendorf, H. K.: Therapeutic activity of desiccated thyroid substance, sodiumIthyroxine and d,1 triiodothyronine: A comparative study. Amer. J. Med., 20: 774, 1956.
150.Haynes, R.C., Jr.: Thyroid andantithyroid drugs. In Goodman andGilmans The Pharmacological Basisof Therapeutics, 8th edition. New York, Pergamon
151.Matthews,G. “Armour Thyroidand Porcine Thyroid Extract Replacement Therapy”. . June 29.2004.Medicinesand Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency MHRA letter
152.IDIS Ltd. Sourcing Unlicensed NamedPatients Medicines. http://www.idispharma.com/showcontent.asp?CollectionID=@0000000004&ParentID=@0000000001
153.Krantz JC Jr., New Drugs and theKefauver-Harris Amendment, J New Drugs, 1966, Mar-Apr;6(22):77-9
154.Krantz JC Jr., The Kefauver-Harrisamendment after sixteen years, Mil Med. 1978 Dec;143(12):883.
155.NHS Prescription Pricing Division.”Medical Exemption Certificate (MEDIX)”http://www.ppa.org.uk/ppa/medex.htm
156.Kirsch I, Deacon BJ, Huedo-MedinaTB, Scoboria A, Moore TJ, et al. Initial Severity and Antidepressant Benefits:A Meta-Analysis of Data Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration. 2008,PLoS Med 5(2): e45 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045: Access full article at http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pmed.0050045
157.Elizabeth Haggett. TheHuman Rights Act 1998 and Access to NHS Treatments and Services:A PracticalGuide .Published by The Constitution Unit School of Public Policy UCL(University College London) 29/30 Tavistock Square, London WC1H 9QU. Web: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/spp/publication…cations/78.pdf
158.Guardian:glaxosmithkline-pays-three-billion-dollars-to-settle-us-probe
159.http://searchjustice.usdoj.gov/searc…&oe=ISO-8859-11.9bn fraud fine forGlaxo in US sparks calls for UK prosecution: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/bu…n-7906833.html
160.UKs Sunday Telegraph Could ARenegade Doctor Save Your Life? http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/alternativemedicine/10985192/Could-a-renegade-doctor-save-your-life.html
161.UK Daily Mail (26 Aug.2014): “Cold Hands? Always Tired? It Could BeThe Hidden Thyroid Problem Many Doctors Refuse to Treat:http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2734215/Cold-hands-Always-tired-It-hidden-thyroid-problem-doctors-refuse-treat.htmlthis
162.Thyroid Patient Advocacy: Royal College ofPhysician’s Refusal to Listen:http://tpauk.com/forum/content.php?646-Royal-College-of-Physician-s-Refusal-to-Listen

Tags:

You must be logged in to post a comment.

Previous comments