This website is dedicated to the millions of thyroid patients who are being ignored and left to suffer unnecessarily, and to healthcare practitioners, who want to better serve those patients.

Research Papers Links to Web Pages

Are Biochemical Test of Thyroid Function of Any Value in Monitoring Patients Receiving Thyroxine Replacement?
Fraser, WD et al. British Medical Journal Vol 293 27 September 1986 To establish their role in monitoring patients receiving thyroxine replacement biochemical tests of thyroid function were performed in 148 hypothyroid patients studied prospectively

Biochemistry of Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism
Frederic L Hoch. Postgrad Medical Journal 1968 44: 347-362 The thyroid hormones act directly on mitochondria, and thereby control the transformation of the energy derived from oxidations into a form utilizable by the cell. Through their direct actions on mitochondria, the hormones also control indirectly the rate of protein synthesis and thereby the amount of oxidative apparatus in the cell

Blocking Activity to Action of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Serum from Patients with Primary Hypothyroidism
Steel, NR et al. British Medical Journal (Clin Res Ed). 1984 May 26; 288(6430): 15591562. Spontaneous primary hypothyroidism in adults is usually associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. The hypothesis that hypothyroidism may result from the presence in serum of a factor that blocks stimulation of the thyroid by thyroid stimulating hormone was examined

Dangerous Dogmas in Medicine : The Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome
Leslie J De Groot. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Vol 84 No 1 1999 The Endocrine Society For more than 3 decades it has been known that serum thyroid hormone levels drop during starvation and illness. In mild illness, this involves only a decrease in serum T3 levels. However, as the severity of the illness increases, there is a drop in both serum T3 and T4

Effect Of 3,5,3?L-Triiodothyronine Administration On Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels
Inada M, et al. Endocrinol Jpn. 1980 Jun;27(3):291-5. In order to investigate the effect of 3,5,3?L-triiodothyronine (T3) administration on thyroid hormone concentrations in serum, thyroxine (T4), T3, 3,3?,5?L-triiodothyronine (reverse T3, rT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in serum were determined before and after T3 administration in 10 hypothyroid patients maintained on constant doses of T4

Effect of Exogenous Thyroid Hormone Intake on the Interpretation of Serum TSH Test Results
Peter Warmingham. Thyroid Science 5(7):1-6, 2010 The dosage of thyroid hormone for hypothyroid patients is usually set such that the TSH reading is within the reference range. At this dosage the physician regards the patient as being balanced, yet the patient often complains that this dosage is not sufficient to restore his or her feeling of well being

Euthyroid Sick Syndrome: Is It a Misnomer?
Inder J Chopra. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Vol 82 No 2 Copyright 1997 by The Endocrine Society The term euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) identifies abnormalities in thyroid function tests observed in patients with systemic nonthyroidal illnesses (NTIs) and those undergoing surgery or fasting. The term nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) has also been employed to describe these abnormalities

Inadequate Thyroid Hormone Regulation as the Main Mechanism of Fibromyalgia : A Review of Evidence John C Lowe & Jackie Yellin. Thyroid Science 3(6):R1-14, 2008 Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is the diagnosis clinicians most often give patients who have chronic widespread pain and abnormal tenderness. In doing so, they fail to account for a substantial line of evidence showing that the main mechanism of FMS is inadequate thyroid hormone regulation

Long-term treatment with supraphysiological doses of thyroid hormone in affective disorders effects on bone mineral density.

Ricken et al. J Affect Disord. 2012 Jan;136(1-2):e89-94. Epub 2011 Jul 14. To investigate the long-term effects of supraphysiological, TSH suppressive doses of levothyroxine (TSDL) on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with affective disorders during an average treatment duration of 69 months.

Metabolic Effects Of Thyroid Hormone Derivatives
Moreno, M et al Thyroid. 2008 Feb;18(2):239-53. The processes and pathways mediating the intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are all affected by thyroid hormones (THs) in almost all tissues. Particular attention has been devoted by scientists to the effects of THs on lipid metabolism

Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome and Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in Patients Admitted to the ICU
Bello et al. Chest 2009;135;1448-1454; Prepublished online March 2, 2009 The effect of the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) on the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) has not been extensively investigated. This study aims to determine whether the NTIS is associated with the duration of MV in patients admitted to the ICU.

Standard Thyroid Tests Lack The Accuracy To Determine The Proper Dose of Thyroid Replacement

Most physicians, including endocrinologists, rely on standard thyroid tests to determine their patients proper dose of thyroid replacement. The evaluation of a patients signs and symptoms to determine the proper dose has been reduced to the point of being unimportant to most physicians

Thyroid Hormone Levels in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Uzun et al. European Journal of General Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2007, pp. 80-82 The severity of airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) is associated with impairment of thyroid gland function

Trading One Dangerous Dogma for Another? Thyroid Hormone Treatment of the Euthyroid Sick Syndrome Wartofsky et al. 84 (5): 1759. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Vol 84 No 5 Copyright 1999 by The Endocrine Society. In his review of the euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), Dr. DeGroot (1) cites a litany of circumstantial evidence ostensibly supporting a state of underlying hypothyroidism in patients with systemic illness, which in his view justifies treatment with thyroid hormone. DeGroot argues with the dogma against such treatment espoused by Chopra et al. (2) by stating that there is no factual basis for this dogma, while failing to fully acknowledge that there is no factual basis for treatment either

Vitamin A in Adrenal Hormone and Mucopolysaccharide Biosynthesis
George Wolf. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition July 1961 9: 36-42 Vitamin A deficiency was found to cause an abnormal metabolism of acetate, and reduced glyconeogenesis. This was traced to a malfunction of the adrenal cortex and, ultimately, to an interruption of adrenal glucocorticoid hormone (corticosterone) biosynthesis in the vitamin A deficient rat


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