This website is dedicated to the millions of thyroid patients who are being ignored and left to suffer unnecessarily, and to healthcare practitioners, who want to better serve those patients.

T3 in the treatment of depression

Below are references to some research/studies that have been done showing the active thyroid hormone T3 used in the treatment of depression.

  1. Wilson, I.C., Prange, A.J. Jr., and Lara, P.P. L-triiodothyronine alone and with impramine in the treatment of depressed women. In The Thyroid Axis, Drugs, and Behavior. Edited by A.J. Prange. New York, Raven Press, 1974, pp.49-62.
  2. Altshuler, L.L., Bauer, M., Frye, M.A., et al. Does thyroid supplementation accelerate tricyclic antidepressant response? A review and meta-analysis of the literature. Am. J. Psychiatry, 2001; 158:1617-1622.
  3. Joffe, R.T. and Singer, W. A comparison of triidothyronine and thyroxine in the potentiation of tricyclic antidepressants. Psychiatry Res., 1990, 32:241-251.
  4. Stern, R.A., Nevels, C.T., Shelhorse ,combined thyroid hormone treatment and electroconvulsive therapy: preliminary findings. Biol. Psychiatry, 1991, 30:623-627.
  5. Cook, RG., Joffe, RT and Levitt AJ. “T3 augmentation of antidepressant treatmentin T4 replaced patients; J.,Clin.Pyschiatry 1992.53(1):16-
  6. Lowe, J.C. The Metabolic Treatment of Fibromyalgia. Boulder: McDowell Publishing Co., 2000.
  7. Lowe, J.C. and Honeyman-Lowe, G. Fibromyalgia and thyroid disease. Paper presented in Grenoble, France, May 6 (conference of the French Fibromyalgia Association of Rgion Rhne-Alpes) and discussed in Toulon, France on May 11 (at the Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal), 2000.
  8. Lowe, J. Thyroid disease and fibromyalgia syndrome. Lyon Mditerrane Mdical: Mdecine du Sud-Est., 2000, 36(1):15-17, (Janvier, Fvrier, Mars) 2000.
  9. Abraham G, Milev R, Stuart Lawson J.T3 augmentation of SSRI resistant depression.Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, ON, Canada
  10. Joffe RT, Singer W, Levitt AJ, MacDonald C. A Placebo-Controlled Comparison of Lithium and Triiodothyronine Augmentation of Tricyclic Antidepressants in Unipolar Refractory Depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50(5):387-393. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820170065008.
  11. Thomas W. Heinrich, M.D. and Garth Grahm, M.D. Hypothyroidism Presenting as Psychosis: Myxedema Madness Revisited.
  12. From the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (Dr. Heinrich); and the Department of Internal Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (Dr. Grahm) Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2003; 5(6): 260266. PMCID: PMC419396


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