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Thyroid References Heart

Associations Between Thyroid Hormone Levels And Heart Health

Thyroid Hormone Levels Are Positively Correlated With The Heart Rhythm

    • Tseng KH, Walfish PG, Persaud JA, Gilbert BW. Concurrent aortic and mitral valve echocardiography permits measurement of systolic time intervals as an index of peripheral tissue thyroid functional status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989 Sep;69(3):633-8
    • A Lower Serum T3 (And Higher Serum T4) Is Found In Heart Patients With Arrhythmia
      • Selivonenko VG, Zaika IV. The function of the thyroid and thyrotropic function in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease and rhythm disorders. Lik Sprava. 1998 Jan-Feb;(1):81-3
      • Inama G, Furlanello F, Fiorentini F, Braito G, Vergara G, Casana P. Arrhythmogenic implications of non-iatrogenic thyroid dysfunction. G Ital Cardiol. 1989 Apr;19(4):303-10 (Hypothyroidism in patients with hyperkinetic ventricular arrhythmias (25%), atrial fibrillation (37.5%) and atrio-ventricular block (37.5%)
      • Vanin LN, Smetnev AS, Sokolov SF, Kotova GA, Masenko VP. Thyroid function in patients with ventricular arrhythmia. Kardiologiia. 1989 Feb;29(2):64-7 (Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed in 4.8% of 21 patients with persistent ventricular arrhythmias, and latent hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 38.1%)
      • Vanin LN, Smetnev AS, Sokolov SF, Kotova GA, Masenko VP. Study of thyroid function in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Kardiologiia. 1989 Jan;29(1):71-4
      • Nesher G, Zion MM. Recurrent ventricular tachycardia in hypothyroidism==report of a case and review of the literature. Cardiology. 1988;75(4):301-6
      • Fredlund BO, Olsson SB. Long QT interval and ventricular tachycardia of “torsade de pointe” type in hypothyroidism. Acta Med Scand. 1983;213(3):231-5

Low Serum T3 And T4 Levels Are Found In Patients With Coronary Heart Disease

    • Miura S, Iitaka M, Suzuki S, Fukasawa N, Kitahama S, Kawakami Y, Sakatsume Y, Yamanaka K, Kawasaki S, Kinoshita S, Katayama S, Shibosawa T, Ishii J. Decrease in serum levels of thyroid hormone in patients with coronary heart disease. Endocr J. 1996 Dec;43(6):657-63

A Low Serum Free T3 In Patients With Coronary Bypass Increases The Risk Of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation (Higher Risk Than That Of Not Taking A Beta-Blocker)

    • Cerillo AG, Bevilacqua S, Storti S, Mariani M, Kallushi E, Ripoli A, Clerico A, Glauber M. Free triiodothyronine: a novel predictor of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003 Oct;24(4):487-92

Progressively Lower Serum T3 Levels Are Found In Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease Form Coronary Stenosis To Mycocardial Infarct

    • Telkova IL, Tepliakov AT. Changes of thyroid hormone levels in the progression of coronary artery disease. Arteriosclerosis. Klin Med (Mosk). 2004;82(4):29-3
    • Pavlou HN, Kliridis PA, Panagiotopoulos AA, Goritsas CP, Vassilakos PJ. Euthyroid sick syndrome in acute ischemic syndromes. Angiology. 2002 Nov-Dec;53(6):699-70
    • Pimenov LT, Leshchinskii LA. Thyroid hormone changes (iodothyroninemia) in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and their clinical significance. Kardiologiia. 1984 Oct;24(10):74-7 44

Low Serum Free And Total T3 (And Low Free T4 And High TSH) Levels Are Found In Patients Suffering From Acute Mycocardial Infarct With Poor Outcome

    • Satar S, Seydaoglu G, Avci A, Sebe A, Karcioglu O, Topal M. Prognostic value of thyroid hormone levels in acute myocardial infarction: just an epiphenomenon? Am Heart Hosp J. 2005 Fall;3(4):227- 33

Auto-Immune Thyroidiits Is Associated With Poorer Heart Indices

    • Zoncu S, Pigliaru F, Putzu C, Pisano L, Vargiu S, Deidda M, Mariotti S, Mercuro G. Cardiac function in borderline hypothyroidism: a study by pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005 Apr;152(4):527-33 (namely impairment of systolic ejection, a delay in diastolic relaxation and a decrease in the compliance to the ventricular filling. Several significant correlations were found between the parameters and serum-free T(3) and T(4) and TSH concentrations. Data strongly support the concept of a continuum spectrum of a slight thyroid failure in autoimmune thyroiditis)

Increased Incidence Of Auto-Immune Thyroiditis And Overt Hypothyroidism In Men With Acute Mycocardial Infarct, Which May Have Contributed To The Development Of The Disease.

    • Cerillo AG, Bevilacqua S, Storti S, Mariani M, Kallushi E, Ripoli A, Clerico A, Glauber M. Free triiodothyronine: a novel predictor of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003 Oct;24(4):487-92

A Low Serum T3 Or T4 (Hypothyroidism) Is Found In Cardiac Failure

    • Khaleeli AA, Memon N. Factors affecting resolution of pericardial effusions in primary hypothyroidism: a clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic study. Postgrad Med J. 1982 Aug;58(682):473-6 27. Reza MJ, Abbasi AS. Congestive cardiomyopathy in hypothyroidism. West J Med. 1975 Sep;123(3):228-3
    • Fredlund BO, Olsson SB. Long QT interval and ventricular tachycardia of “torsade de pointe” type in hypothyroidism. Acta Med Scand. 1983;213(3):231-
    • Rays J, Wajngarten M, Gebara OC, Nussbacher A, Telles RM, Pierri H, Rosano G, Serro-Azul JB. Long-term prognostic value of triiodothyronine concentration in elderly patients with heart failure. Am J Geriatr Cardiol. 2003 Sep-Oct;12(5):293-7 (Lower serum T3 in cardiac failure: the odds ratio for events was 9.8 (95% confidence interval,2.2-43, p=0.004) for patients in the lowest tertile of triiodothyronine, that is, lower than 80 ng/dL, compared with patients with levels above 80 ng/dL
    • Pingitore A, Landi P, Taddei MC, Ripoli A, L’Abbate A, Iervasi G. Triiodothyronine levels for risk stratification of patients with chronic heart failure. Am J Med. 2005 Feb;118(2):132-
    • Klein I, Ojama K. In: Werner & Ingbars The Thyroid, ed. Braverman LE & Utiger RD, Lippincott- Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, 1996, 62: 799-804

A Low Serum Free T3 Index/Reverse T3 Ratio In Chronic Heart Failure Patients Is A Highly Significant Predictor Of Poor Outcome

    • Cerillo AG, Bevilacqua S, Storti S, Mariani M, Kallushi E, Ripoli A, Clerico A, Glauber M. Free triiodothyronine: a novel predictor of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 200
    • Hamilton MA, Stevenson LW, Luu M, Walden JA. Altered thyroid hormone metabolism in advanced heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990 Jul;16(1):91-
    • Kozdag G, Ural D, Vural A, Agacdiken A, Kahraman G, Sahin T, Ural E, Komsuoglu B. Relation between free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine ratio, echocardiographic parameters and mortality in dilated cardiomyopathy. Eur J Heart Fail. 2005 Jan;7(1):113-8

A Low Serum T3 Or T4 In Heart Patients Is Associated With An Increased Risk Of Cardiac Arrest/Death

    • Wortsman J, Premachandra BN, Chopra IJ, Murphy JE. Hypothyroxinemia in cardiac arrest. Arch Intern Med. 1987 Feb;147(2):245-
    • Iervasi G, Pingitore A, Landi P, Raciti M, Ripoli A, Scarlattini M, L’Abbate A, Donato L. Low-T3 11;107(5):708-13

Cardiovascular disease and mortality is increased in hypothyroidism (+ 70 % for both)

    • Dorr M, Volzke H. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in thyroid dysfunction. Minerva Endocrinol. 2005 Dec;30(4):199-216

Thyroid Therapy of Cardiac Patients

Corrective thyroid therapy is safe in hypothyroid patients with common benign cardiac arrhythmias at the condition that thyroid treatment is started at low doses and then gradually and prudently increased to the adequate dose. The treatment does not trigger an increase in arrhythmia frequency except in rare patients with baseline atrial premature beats. It is, however, associated with an increase in basal, average and maximal heart rates.

    • Polikar R, Feld GK, Dittrich HC, Smith J, Nicod P. Effect of thyroid replacement therapy on the frequency of benign atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1989 Oct;14(4):999-1002

Thyroid Therapy Corrects The Bradycardia Of Hypothyroidism

    • Yamauchi K, Takasu N, Ichikawa K, Yamada T, Aizawa T. Effects of long-term treatment with thyroxine on pituitary TSH secretion and heart action in patients with hypothyroidism. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1984 Oct;107(2):218-24 (T4 doses should be adjusted to maintain normal ET/PEP (systolic time intervals) rather than normal serum TSH levels).

Thyroid Therapy Corrects The Ventricular Arrhythmia

    • Vanin LN, Smetnev AS, Sokolov SF, Kotova GA, Masenko VP. Thyroid function in patients with ventricular arrhythmia. Kardiologiia. 1989 Feb;29(2):64-7 (Thyroid therapy for hypothyroidism led to the disappearance of paroxysms of ventricular tachycardia and reduced the total number and grades of ventricular extra-systoles in patients with ventricular arrhythmias; moreover, sensitivity to antiarrhythmic agents developed to replace an earlier resistance).

Coronary Heart Disease In Humans: The Improvement With Thyroid Treatment

    • Barnes BO. Prophylaxis of ischaemic heart-disease by thyroid therapy. Lancet. 1959 Aug 22;2:149- 5
    • Holland FW 2nd, Brown PS Jr, Clark RE. Acute severe postischemic myocardial depression reversed by triiodothyronine. Ann Thorac Surg. 1992 Aug;54(2):301-
    • Israel M. An effective therapeutic approach to the control of atherosclerosis illustrating harmlessness of prolonged use of thyroid hormone in coronary disease. Am J Dig Dis. 1955 June;161-
    • Yokoyama Y, Novitzky D, Deal MT, Snow TR. Facilitated recovery of cardiac performance by triiodothyronine following a transient ischemic insult. Cardiology. 1992;81(1):34-45

Adequate Thyroxine Replacement In Hypothyroidism Prevents Coronary Artery Disease Progression

    • Perk M, ONeill BJ; The effect of thyroid therapy on angiographic artery disease progression . Can J Card. 1997;13(3):273-6

Desiccated Thyroid Therapy Improves Cardiac Failure Refractory To Digitalis In Humans

    • Zondek H. Myxedema Heart. Munch Med Wochenschr. 1918, 65: 1180-
    • Khaleeli AA, Memon N. Factors affecting resolution of pericardial effusions in primary hypothyroidism: a clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic study. Postgrad Med J. 1982 Aug;58(682):473-6

T3-Therapy Improves The Outcome Of Open Heart Sugery, Especially Heart Transplants

    • Novitzky D, Fontanet H, Snyder M, Coblio N, Smith D, Parsonnet V. Impact of triiodothyronine on the survival of high-risk patients undergoing open heart surgery. Cardiology. 1996 Nov-Dec;87(6):509-15
    • Novitzky D, Cooper DK, Chaffin JS, Greer AE, DeBault LE, Zuhdi N. Improved cardiac allograft function following triiodothyronine therapy to both donor and recipient. Transplantation. 1990 Feb;49(2):311-6

Thyroid Hormone Therapy Greatly Reduces The Lesions Of Experimental Myocardial Infarct In Rats

    • Holland FW, Brown PS, Clark RE. Acute severe postischemic myocardial depression reversed by triiodothyronine. Ann Thorac Surg 1992 54: 301-305

Thyroid Therapy Reduces Coronary Artery Disease And Cardiac Fibrosis In Mice

    • Yao J, Eghbali M. Decreased collagen mRNA and regression of cardiac fibrosis in the ventricular myocardium of the tight skin mouse following thyroid hormone treatment. Cardiovasc Res. 1992 Jun;26(6):603-7

Thyroid Therapy Reduced The Lesions Of Experimental Cardiac Arrest In Dogs

    • Facktor MA, Mayor GH, Nachreiner RF, D’Alecy LG. Thyroid hormone loss and replacement during resuscitation from cardiac arrest in dogs. Resuscitation. 1993 Oct;26(2):141-62

Thyroid Therapy Reduced The Complications Of Hemorrhagic Shock In Dogs

    • Shigematsu H, Shatney CH. The effect of triiodothyronine (T3) and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) on canine hemorrhagic shock. Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi. 1988 Oct;89(10):1587-93

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