Vitamins, Minerals And Your Thyroid What Your Doctor May Not Know
Copied here with the kind permission of Tony Pearce RN. Specialist Trichologist, National Trichology Services
Shortly after hanging my Trichology shingle I decided to specialise in female hair loss issues. Id discovered early contrary to general opinion female hair loss is quite complex in what both influences and impels it.
Although males can (and do) experience different forms of alopecia, overwhelmingly the most commonly seen is Male Androgenic Alopecia male pattern balding. When a male has the genetics to exhibit this, its as much a natural part of post-pubertal secondary sex characteristics as facial whiskers, deepening voice, muscle bulk, and body hair.
By contrast thinning scalp hair in women is almost always an indication of internal dysfunction; a collapsing of body homeostasis to the point where hair growth can no longer be supported.
From menarche* to menopause its reasonable to assert most menstruating females will have some degree of iron deficiency at times in their life. Very few functions of the body are activated without sufficient iron to furnace them.
Iron storage (termed ferritin) is considered the true indicator of iron status with an accepted reference range of 20-300ug/L. To aspire to a target level about mid-range i.e.: 150ug/L could not be considered unrealistic given the importance of iron in the body.
The significance of reaching and maintaining this target level was the research of Dr. John Lee Australias most prolific thyroid researcher. Insufficient iron restricts cell mitochondria production from which Adenosine Tri-phosphate (ATP) cellular energy is created. Our metabolic activity and Phase II liver detoxification pathways are ATP dependant.
Regrettably conformist practitioners still claim a ferritin of 21ug/L is within range and therefore normal! Just two points below (19ug/L) suggests depleted iron stores. To take this point further are they proposing a woman with a ferritin of 21ug/L (one point within range) will experience the equal energy and metabolic drive as another whose ferritin is 299ug/L (again one point within range)?
I also reject the claim of those traditionalists who say its impossible to achieve a 150ug/L ferritin in a pre-menopausal woman.
In terms of metabolic importance, Iodine is deemed the next most essential (trace) nutrient after iron. Simply put: Iodine deficiency = compromised thyroid hormone production.
Testing Iodine levels is a simple urinary spot-screen, but is seldom routinely assessed. Low Iodine results in an under-functioning thyroid. There is also a studied correlation between Iodine deficiency and reduced IQ in children, and breast disease in women.
At the time of writing Australian Professor Creswell Eastman from the Council of Control (Iodine Deficiency Disorders) is urging food manufacturers to again add Iodine to their products. His statement arises from a recent national study which found almost half of all children of primary school age show Iodine deficiency.
A urinary Iodine test is not even presently claimable under Australian Medicare.
As a Trichologist/ registered nurse Im unable to directly order blood pathology for my clients. Instead I suggest they ask their family doctor to review their complaint and authorise appropriate blood pathology. Two principle reasons for this:
- Its a professional given; the primary doctor has a right to know what another practitioner orthodox or alternate is proposing for their patient.
- Medicare should cover the bulk of this pathology thats why we pay the Medicare Levy.
It can be exasperating when zinc and/or copper testing are disregarded as unnecessary. Sometimes one will be authorised but the other refused. Both nutrients are vital for thyroid homeostasis (and hair growth) but each antagonises the others action and absorption. If either mineral is elevated the other will (but not always) be depressed. Elevated or depleted levels of either mineral will have a profound affect on body functioning and the disruption of other nutrients.
Zinc is held to be implicated in at least 150 enzymatic actions within the body. Its main contributions to thyroid homeostasis are:
- The synthesis of Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) produced by the Hypothalamus to stimulate production of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH).
- A crucial catalyst in the binding and activation of the active thyroid hormone Triiodothyronine (T3) to receptors on the cell nucleus.
- Zinc deficiency is thought to contribute to poor thyroid hormone conversion and deficiency diminishes healthy genetic expression of thyroid hormone.
A refractory zinc deficiency may result from inadequate protein availability (Baratosy:2006). Amino acid (Tyrosine) derived from protein is a foundation of thyroid hormone production.
Reviewing copper levels is particularly crucial. Low copper is said to inhibit thyroid gland hormone production, whilst elevated copper obstructs cell receptor interaction with thyroid hormone.
A deficiency of copper hinders the deployment of iron by the red blood cells, resulting in the iron being accumulated (and unavailable) within the organs of the body. Because this stored iron cannot be utilised whilst the copper deficiency persists, symptoms of iron deficiency may present despite an actual iron sufficiency.
An elevated copper level and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin is regularly seen in females using a contraceptive. This is largely due to the additional (synthetic) oestrogen found in contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. Oestrogen gives rise to copper retention and vice versa ultimately leading to zinc and other nutrient depletion, and oestrogen dominance.
Once copper is in excess and too dominant in relation to zinc, it can exert what Baratosy (2005) describes as an anti-nutrient or toxic metal influence. High copper levels restrict the absorption and utilisation of zinc (particularly), iron, magnesium, Vitamins B3, 5, and 6, Vitamins C and E, and certain trace elements.
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) is produced in the liver, and is the carrier vitamins protein for (amongst other hormones) 70% of the circulating but bound (inactive) testosterone and oestrogen. Elevated SHBG levels may result in symptoms of testosterone and oestrogen deficiency.
In the long line of essential nutrients for optimal thyroid function, the importance of Selenium is only shaded by Iron and Iodine. Several thyroid enzymes are Selenium-dependant to the creation of thyroid hormone. Unlike copper and zinc, Selenium and Iodine are agonists to each other with optimal levels of both (in balance) essential for a healthy thyroid gland. Selenium also has an integral role in anti-oxidant and immunity defence mechanisms.
There remain some differing opinions on the most reliable form of Selenium testing. Some advocate blood serum; others support hair mineral analysis (HTMA) still others suggest toe nail clippings.
The B-vitamins are essential co-enzymes to maintaining mitochondrial ATP production. Compromised mitochondrial function leads to low metabolic (thyroid) activity. Thiamine (Vitamin B1), B12, Vitamin D and folic acid are synergistic to copper. Supplementing these nutrients where required helps restore body copper balance. Vitamin D metabolism is enhanced by copper.
The Thyroid Hormones:
Its not my intention to detail or even outline the anatomy and physiology of the thyroid-related endocrine system and the hormones involved. There are many excellent thyroid texts written by better educated and more qualified folk than me. I simply wish to convey to the lay reader what thyroid hormones they might request tested and why:
- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH): produced by the (anterior) Pituitary Gland TSH regulates thyroid hormone production from the thyroid gland. TSH has long been regarded as the most reliable and sensitive indicator of thyroid function, however its limitations are these:
- TSH does not reflect low metabolic activity; cell mitochondrial energy output and the necessary nutrients to furnace the body.
- TSH does not reflect sufficient and quality conversion of the inactive thyroid hormone Thyroxine (T4) to the active, cell-influencing Triiodothyronine (T3).
- TSH does not reflect deficiency of any of the numerous nutrients crucial to T4 T3 synthesis, conversion, and activation.
- TSH does not reflect T3 interaction with its mitochondrial or DNA receptors within the cell itself. If this interface fails T3 cannot influence cell activity in any meaningful way.
- TSH does not reflect elevated Reverse Triiodothyronine (rT3) levels which interfere with T4 T3 conversion and T3s activation of its intra-cell receptors.
- TSH does not immediately reflect increasing thyroid antibodies in autoimmune thyroiditis.
- Thyroxine (T4): T4 is secreted by the thyroid gland in response to hypothalamic-pituitary stimulation (TRH/TSH). This secreted T4 then circulates in the blood bound to a carrier protein until synthesised (in the liver and kidneys) to T3. T4 possesses no interfacing receptors of its own, but is the inactive precursor of T3.
- Triiodothyronine (T3): although some T3 is produced by the thyroid gland, greater than 80% results from T4 conversion. T3 is our active thyroid hormone which profoundly regulates body metabolism.
- Reverse Triiodothyronine (rT3): rT3 is an adapted non-active form of Triiodothyronine. In times of protracted physiological and emotional stress or illness, T4s normal conversion to T3 is corrupted and rT3 results. Lee (2005) found forty percent of the synthetic thyroid hormone replacement Thyroxine sodium (Oroxine et al) is altered to rT3.
- Thyroid antibodies: thyroid antibodies are detectable indicators within the circulatory system that our immunity is primed against our thyroid gland. The presence of thyroid antibodies is sometimes discounted by medicos because a percentage of the population shows low levels of antibodies without any discernable thyroid disease.
Difficulties with any of the above has been termed Euthyroid Sick Syndrome patients exhibit symptoms of an under functioning thyroid but their TSH and T4 results are normal.
In healthy, minimally-stressed people rT3 is quickly purged from the body. When rT3 levels are allowed to become excessive, it inhibits and distorts T4 T3 conversion thus producing further rT3.
Elevated levels of rT3 are commonly detected in Chronic Fatigue and Fibromyalgia sufferers. Arem (1999) proposes these two debilitating illnesses are manifestations of thyroid dysfunction. A characteristic of Wilsons Thyroid Syndrome is patients exhibit high rT3 levels because T4 is continually corrupted to rT3 at the expense of T3.
rT3 disrupts thyroid homeostasis by inhibiting the production and function of T3. rT3 binds to but does not activate T3 intra-cell receptors; effectively blocking T3 interface and activation.
Dr. John Lee was the first practitioner to facilitate the testing of rT3 in Australia.
Elevated levels typically signify autoimmune thyroiditis Hashimotos if the patient exhibits an under active thyroid state, and Graves Disease if their symptoms/pathology suggest the thyroid is over active.
The usual thyroid antibodies tested in Australia are:
- Thyroglobulin Antibodies
- Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPO Ab) the more sensitive test.
Researchers suggest a strong association between autoimmune thyroiditis and Coeliac Disease. Patients exhibiting both conditions were able to eliminate thyroid antibodies by adopting a Gluten-free diet (Baratosy:2005). An Italian study of female nursing home geriatrics with hypothyroidism, found that by eliminating gluten from the diet, the hypothyroid symptoms in these patients greatly diminished or disappeared.
The crucial roles sex and steroid hormones play in thyroid homeostasis particularly Cortisol, Progesterone, and DHEA have not been discussed here. Suffice to say the thyroid-adrenal relationship is mutually dependant, and a Saliva Hormone Assay of these and other relevant hormones is an integral part of the complete investigative process.
Toxic heavy metals principally Lead, Mercury, Cadmium, Aluminum and Arsenic block the function of Vitamins and Minerals necessary for thyroid homeostasis. Where patients relate long-standing illness, toxic heavy metals should be an early assessment priority. Accurate and convenient testing is achieved by HTMA.
The thyroid hormone cascade is incredibly involved and complex. Vitamins, minerals, amino acids, trace elements, essential fatty acids (DHA/EPA), sex and steroid hormones, as well as the immune system must all be adequately available and harmonious to each other for T3 to accomplish its task. If any one of these vital components are lacking the process will stall and optimal body functioning diminished
In all this hair is the expendable extravagance; usually the first tissue to suffer a withdrawal of metabolic and nutrient support.
It should now be appreciated that ‘gimmicky’ or one dimensional treatments can do little to influence nutritional, metabolic or hormonal disturbance. These areas must be individually tested for but reviewed and treated as part of the total picture.
*the onset of menstruation in a young female at puberty.
About the Author: Tony Pearce RN, WTS is a Specialist Trichologist of female hair loss + scalp problems. He is a Member of the World Trichology Society and Associate Member of the Australasian College of Nutritional + Environmental Medicine (ACNEM). Tony currently has three clinics in Sydney and one in Melbourne, Victoria. His offers an informational website + online consultation service at www.hairlossclinic.com.au.
*A qualified Trichologist has studied & successfully completed a recognised Academic Trichology Educational Program.
Read more herehttp://www.hairlossclinic.com.au/articles/vitamins-minerals-thyroid.html